Yes, It has happened as of August 2013, the chromeOS i.e the Linux based operating system that Google supplies for ChromeBook computers now supports Bluetooth audio.
I am pretty sure one of the motivating factors was that owners of the 1000+ US Dollar Google Chromebook Pixel found previously that whilst a Bluetooth mouse or keyboard could be connected (but why would you want to?), a Bluetooth audio headset could not. How embarassing.
So how is it today
I am currently on chrome verion 30 or thereabouts.
These two headsets are defined
And yes they now (at last) work!
Initially I had trouble pairing the Logitech headset, the fix is to hold the track-forward and volume up buttons to force it into pairing mode (fast blinking) with of course the input slider in the Bluetooth position.
After that it worked immediately (so Logitech H800 headset is even more useful now)
Thanks google, but not before time.